Research project to test viability of on-land salmon farming

Salmon farming is moving on land.

The Atlantic Salmon Federation and the Conservation Fund are joining forces in a research project that will try to rear salmon in a freshwater closed-containment system.

“It’s huge, it’s groundbreaking,” Bill Taylor, the federation’s president, said. “Hopefully it will help us move towards much more environmentally friendly and wild-salmon friendly aquaculture.”

Over the next year, the federation plans to grow 10 tonnes of salmon in a circular, stainless-steel tank that is slightly larger than an Olympic swimming pool.

The Conservation Fund, an American non-profit organization, has successfully conducted similar trials with St. John River salmon in smaller qualities, but Taylor said this project is the first trial of this magnitude. Taylor said the project’s budget is $120,000.

Jonathan Carr, the federation’s director of research and environment, said the goal is to provide an environmentally friendly solution to the growing global demand for salmon.

He said there has been concern in recent years about farmed salmon escaping their confines and contaminating wild fish stocks. The on-land, closed-containment system would eliminate this risk, Carr said.

It would also result in a better product for consumers, since pesticides and harsh chemicals would no longer be necessary to raise the fish to maturity. And farmers would be able to charge more for the higher quality, making it cost competitive, Taylor said.

He added that commercial salmon farming is on the brink of maxing out its growth potential. On-land fish farms could be the answer to global demand for salmon, which continues to rise, he said.

But this may be a pipe dream, according to some. Pamela Parker is the executive director for the Atlantic Canada Fish Farmers Association.

“Closed containment is not the magic bullet that some people make it out to be,” she said.

There are significant questions surrounding energy usage and the amount of water that a large-scale operation would use, she said.

Every minute, 5,000 litres of water would pass through the system. However, Taylor said 99.8 per cent of it would be recirculated into the ground, just as clean as when it entered their system.

While Taylor said he couldn’t see closed-containment farms replacing existing fish farm operations, he said it would be great to see in the future. But what may work on a small scale doesn’t always translate to a functional, large-scale operation, Parker said.

To be economically viable, Carr said they would need to grow two to three thousand tonnes. In comparison, Parker said, New Brunswick fish farmers produce a total of 35 thousand metric tonnes of salmon.

To match that output, the tanks would need to cover the space of about 8,000 football fields, Parker said.

“we’re very supportive of new research,” she said, “we’re just not convinced … (this) could be justified.”

The project will be housed in Shepherdstown, West Virginia.

Taylor said, “there’s certainly risk but we think it’s very low.”

Previously published June 24, 2011; Telegraph-Journal

Fish waste could one day help people live better lives

From the slimy, dismembered body parts of sea animals, scientists may one day be able to help prevent diabetes, obesity and brain diseases linked to aging.

Dr. Jacques Gagnon is spearheading a multimillion-dollar research project that turns leftover fish parts from fish-processing plants into useful oils. These oils are packed with antioxidants and omega 3 fatty acids, said Gagnon, the director of fishery and marine products at the Coastal Zones Research Institute in Shippagan.

When insulin production by a pancreas starts to slow down, it can lead to the high glucose levels that define diabetes. And when a brain becomes senile it can decend into degeneration. Eating antioxidants and omega 3s can help slow the process.

Gagnon said his project wouldn’t cure someone’s diabetes or reverse Alzheimer’s, but the project could result in valuable, and likely profitable, nutritional pills geared toward prevention. At this point it’s too early to know how much money could be made, he said.

And there is still lots of testing and licence applications to take care of before the product would be ready for human consumption.

“That’s what I call the star … right now we are at the bottom of the pyramid,” Gagnon said.

He is joined in his research by Dr. Sébastien Plante and Nadia Tchoukanova. Together, they take the byproducts from nearby shrimp, herring, sea cucumber and snow crap production plants they have partnered with, and save them from being wasted.

Take shrimp, for example. The tail counts for a quarter of the total body mass and usually gets thrown away. But those crusty exoskeletons produce a nutritious oil that can be mixed with food used at fish farms, Gagnon said. The pinkish liquid could be sold as a natural alternative to the chemical solutions usually used.

However, pollution is sparking increased public distress over toxins in ocean wildlife.

Gagnon admits that when a biological product is concentrated, it intensifies any existing contamination. That is why he and his team are careful to filter and test thoroughly, he said. “That’s something that we are really aware of.”

Gagnon is not the first to think of using fish waste to fight disease. Scientists in Norway and France have been working on it since the mid-1990s, but Gagnon said when he met with a few of them, they were impressed with New Brunswick’s progress.

It helps that the Coastal Zones Research Institute is very close to the plants that are the source of their base product, he said. So far, he has prepared a library of extracts from the leftover shells, heads, tails and other body part rejects, and is now trying to pinpoint the active ingredients. He said he can’t say what he’s found specifically until they finish testing and have patented the active component.

This year the New Brunswick Innovation Foundation gave the project $15,000 to hire university students as assistants. The researchers also receive $1 million each year from the Atlantic Canada Opportunities Agency for the duration of the project, and are two years into their five-year term.

Previously published May 16, 2011; the New Brunswick Telegraph-Journal